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According to the Chairman of Minya's Reconciliation Committee, interviewed by Al-Monitor, "'traditional hearings are more effective than resorting to the courts because of the expedited process of ending the dispute'" rather than waiting years for the judiciary to process the issue (Al-Monitor 25 Apr. However, during an interview in the same article with the General Bishop of the Coptic Orthodox Diocese for Minya, he stated that traditional hearings are "not recognized as a solution by the church" and are seen as "stop-gap measures" that do not deal with the root causes of sectarian violence, which he linked to the state's neglect of Upper Egypt's development (ibid.). "The Army Rebuilds a Catholic School Devastated by Islamists in Beni Suef." [Accessed 15 Apr.
The Chairman of the Reconciliation Committee in Minya told Al-Monitor that the "intransigence of Brotherhood supporters" and the state of lawlessness in Egypt were reasons for the increased sectarian violence problems in Minya (ibid.). "In Minya Governorate in 4 Years Some 120 Million Egyptian Pounds Paid in Ransom for Kidnapped Christians." [Accessed 15 Apr.
Freedom House reports that following the removal of President Morsi in June 2013, the Egyptian military controlled Egypt without an elected legislature at the start of 2014 (Freedom House 2015). "Egypt's Minya Province Flashpoint for Muslim-Christian Violence." [Accessed 13 Apr.
President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi was elected to office in June 2014 (Human Rights Watch Jan. Sources indicate that Christians have continued to be targeted by Islamic militants in retaliation for their perceived support for the removal of President Morsi (Freedom House 2015; AP 16 June 2014; CSW 26 Sept. Treatment Sources report that Copts experience "discrimination" (AI 2015; The Independent 18 Feb. An "Egypt researcher" for Amnesty International (AI), who was interviewed by the Independent newspaper, stated that societal discrimination against Copts "exists in some parts of the country" such as in areas where there is a large population of Muslim Brotherhood supporters (ibid.).
"More Than 550 Coptic Christian Schoolgirls in Egypt Kidnapped Since 2011." [Accessed 15 Apr.
"Two Homemade Bombs Exploded Near Churches in Zagazig." [Accessed 15 Apr.
"Coptic Christians Clash With Police in Egypt." [Accessed 15 Apr.
According to a January 2015 article by AP, Copts have complained of a rise in kidnappings, armed robberies and assaults between 20 (ibid. The same source explained that, in contrast to sectarian violence, "terrorist attacks" against Copts are perpetuated and planned by a small group of people involving shootings or car bombs and are intended to target and kill larger numbers of people (ibid.). 2015) occupied by poor Coptic migrants arriving from Upper Egypt (ibid.). In a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies at University of Sussex, who has been researching Coptic issues since 1996, gave the view that "there is a constant unknown as to when a strike against [Copts] might occur and we cannot say that they are not always at risk even if they are not located in hotspots such as Upper Egypt" (Research Fellow ). His arrest caused an outburst of sectarian violence in his village and unknown assailants threw Molotov cocktails at Christian-owned businesses (ibid.). Government Efforts Since 2014 Sources report that President al-Sisi attended a Coptic Christmas mass in January 2015), marking the first time an Egyptian president attended the religious ceremony (Ahram Online 6 Jan. A new Constitution was adopted in 2014 that guarantees freedom of religion (Human Rights Watch 29 Jan. However, according to Freedom House, "little has changed in practice" since the adoption of the new Constitution (Freedom House 2015). Agenzia Fides reported that the Egyptian army assisted with the reconstruction of a Christian school south of Cairo which had been burned and destroyed during the riots of August 2013, and the school was able to reopen in September 2014 for the start of the new school year (19 Sept. Sources also indicate that the government has allocated about 30 acres of land to the Coptic Orthodox Church in a district of Cairo (Egypt Independent 8 Apr. 2015) to increase church capacity to provide spiritual, social and educational services in the area (ibid.). According to the Assistant Professor, this could be a "result of higher police presence and effectiveness in urban centers, as opposed to the countryside" (ibid.). In reference to the problem of ransom kidnappings of Copts in Upper Egypt, an activist interviewed by Agenzia Fides gave the opinion that corruption was partly responsible for the "scarce capacity of police reaction" to such criminal activity (9 Dec. In its 2015 annual report, AI states that Egyptian authorities "failed to tackle discrimination against religious minorities, including Coptic Christians" (AI 2015). "Assiut, Police Operation Against Abduction of Copts." [Accessed 15 Apr.